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Solar PV Energy Systems
 
What is solar PV system?
Solar photovoltaic system or Solar power system is one of renewable energy system which uses PV modules to convert sunlight into electricity. The electricity generated can be either stored or used directly, fed back into grid line or combined with one or more other electricity generators or more renewable energy source. Solar PV system is very reliable and clean source of electricity that can suit a wide range of applications such as residence, industry, agriculture, livestock, etc.
Major system components
Solar PV system includes different components that should be selected according to your system type, site location and applications. The major components for solar PV system are solar charge controller, inverter, battery bank, auxiliary energy sources and loads (appliances).
  • PV module – converts sunlight into DC electricity.
  • Solar charge controller – regulates the voltage and current coming from the PV panels going to battery and prevents battery overcharging and prolongs the battery life.
  • Inverter – converts DC output of PV panels or wind turbine into a clean AC current for AC appliances or fed back into grid line.
  • Battery – stores energy for supplying to electrical appliances when there is a demand.
  • Load – is electrical appliances that connected to solar PV system such as lights, radio, TV, computer, refrigerator, etc.
  • Auxiliary energy sources - is diesel generator or other renewable energy sources.

Differents Types of Solar PV Systems

Grid Connected PV Systems

This system is the simplest and most cost effective PV design for many sites especially in developed countries. It consists of just two main components, a PV array and a grid-tied inverter, but cannot provide backup power during periods when the electric grid is down (even if the sun is shining). For sites with fairly reliable grid power, this is usually the best system choice.
Grid Connected PV Systems With Battery BackUp
This system is the simplest and most cost effective PV design for many sites especially in developed countries. It consists of just two main components, a PV array and a grid-tied inverter, but cannot provide backup power during periods when the electric grid is down (even if the sun is shining). For sites with fairly reliable grid power, this is usually the best system choice.
Stand-Alone Solar PV Systems
Stand-alone PV systems are normally used in remote or isolated places where the electric supply from the power-grid is unavailable or not available at a reasonable cost. These types of systems may be powered by a PV array only, or may use wind, an engine-generator or utility power as an auxiliary power source in what is called a PV hybrid system. Examples for such an application are mountain huts or remote cabins, isolated irrigation pumps, emergency telephones, isolated navigational buoy, traffic signs, boats, camper vans, etc. They are suitable for users with limited power need.

 

 
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